Chrysanthemum


2 entries found.
Chrysanthemum
Common Name: Chrysanthemum, Mum, Florists' Chrysanthemum
Botanical Name: Chrysanthemum X morifolium (Dendranthema X grandiflorum) (kris-AN-the-mim X mor-i-FOL-i-um (den-DRAN-the-ma grand-I-FLOR-um))
Decorative Life: 15-25 days, some types last longer.
Post Harvest Care:
  • Treat growing mix with a recommended wetting agent at the time of harvest to improve water relations after harvest.
  • Foliage yellowing and wilting can be due to improper light and/or fertilization practices before harvest or to improper storage after harvest.
Harvest Instructions: Harvest flowers when at least 50% of the flowers are completely open. Harvesting too immature generally results in diseased buds. Postharvest flower life was the same regardless of the relative humidity the plants were exposed to (70-93%) during production. However, plants grown under high relative humidity (90-95%) produced more dry weight than when grown under lower humidity (55-60%). Application of a proper growing media wetting agent just prior to harvest and sale can delay postharvest wilting time by about 3-4 days. Application of the growth retardant B-Nine at 2500 ppm 2 weeks after the initiation of short days can increase postharvest flower life. If growing media temperatures reach 104F or higher (which can happen if sunlight reaches dark colored pots), the plants can be predisposed to severe Phytophthora infection.
Family Roots:
  • Member of the Asteraceae or Compositae (aster or sunflower) family.
  • Native to China.
  • Common relatives include lettuce, endive, cosmos, dahlia, calendula, zinnia and strawflower.
Personality:
  • Composite heads of ray and disk flowers in numerous forms and sizes at ends of branches.
  • Stems leafy, usually branched or pinched to form single or multiple flowered stems.
  • Plant is a semi-woody perennial, classed as a dicotyledon, leaves not parallel veined.
  • Flower fragrance is essentially zero or slightly vegetative in nature.
Availability: Year-round.
Flower Color: Shades of red, pink, orange, bronze, yellow and white.
Storage Specifics: They can be stored at 45-55F (5 days or less) or 32-34 F (if over 5 days).
Tidbits:
  • From Greek "dendron" (tree) and "anthemon" (flower). Chrysanthemum is from Greek "chryos" (golden) and "anthos" (flower). Many flower forms exis: standards have one flower per stem, spray mums are branched with several flowers per stem. Some form classes are daisy, spider (Fuji), quill, football, pompon, cushion, button and spoon. The "X" in the botanical name means that it is a hybrid between at least two different species. The specific epithet name of its second name grandiflorum means large flowers.
  • Mums have been cultivated in China for 2000 years, infusions of the leaves and flowers were used as medicine and fermented into wine. The dew collected from the flowers was said to promote longevity.
  • The mum was introduced to Japan in 400 AD and became the emblem of the imperial family. Name was recently changed back to the more common Chrysanthemum x morifolium. It is a short day plant meaning that it will only flower when the days are short and the night long. That is why it naturally only flowers in the fall. At other times of the year the light/dark periods of the day have to be controlled by growers to promote flowering.
  • Will generally do well in light levels at least bright enough to read a newspaper in comfort but more light to full sunlight would be better. Mums reached Europe in the late 18th century, where the Chusan daisy became known as the pompon chrysanthemum because it resembled tassels on French sailors' hats. In Italy, mums are associated only with funerals and death.
  • Appearance of pink/red coloration on petals for cultivars not of this color indicates old flowers and/or flowers grown too cold. The Compositae or aster family is vast, with over 20,000 species, and is also one of the most developed families. It was named Compositae because the flowers are actually a "composite" of many individual flowers into one head. Hence, when children pull one "petal" off at a time, saying "she/he loves me, loves me not", they are actually removing a complete flower, not just a petal. According to Creasy (1999), fresh petals are edible. Can be used in salads and teas or sprinkled over clear soups.
Recent Findings: Roude et al. (1991) noted that high levels of ammonium fertilization during production caused increased abscisic acid and decreased cytokinin levels resulting in decreased flower life after harvest. As summarized by Brown (1988) of the work by Wolverton et al. (numerous years), this is one of many foliage and flowering plant species that can remove air pollutants such as formaldehyde and/or benzene often found in cigarette smoke from interior environments. Wohlgenant et al. (2001) showed that a 10% increase in the retail price of a potted mum would cause an approximate 7.6% decrease in sales. Rajapakse et al. (1988) showed that under low light intensities generally encountered under interior conditions, the majority of the transpirational water loss was not through stomata but directly through the leaf surface. Hence, anti-transpirants that work by controlling stomata opening will not work with this species. Compared to African violets, azaleas, dracaenas and philodendrons, McClary and Layne (1977) showed that the surface of chrysanthemums harbored more bacteria species and higher populations.
Chrysanthemum
Common Name: Chrysanthemum, Mum, Florist Mum
Botanical Name: Chrysanthemum X morifolium (Dendranthema X grandiflorum) (kris-AN-the-mim X mor-i-FOL-i-um (den-DRAN-the-ma grand-I-FLOR-um))
Decorative Life: 7-14 days, some types last longer.
Post Harvest Care:
  • Make sure stems are cut above any woody portions to ensure good water uptake and do not pound stem ends, as this does not increase water uptake. Rather, remove bottom leaves if present, recut stems under water and place into a fresh flower food solution. Deionized water may reduce vaselife compared to tap or well water. The sugar in flower food is required for florets to develop to maturity.
  • Foliage yellowing and wilting can be due to improper storage, growing conditions and/or high levels of sugar in the vase solution. Using commercially sold benzyladenine sprays or uptake solutions can retard leaf yellowing. A more novel approach is to place freshly harvested cut stems into a 3-4% methanol and water solution for 12-24 hours at 70F prior to shipping. Flowers failing to open entirely generally means that they were harvested too immature and/or they were exposed to high temperatures after harvest.
Harvest Instructions: Plants grown at high (93%) relative humidity lasted longer after harvest compared to those grown at 81 and 70%.
Family Roots:
  • Member of the Asteraceae or Compositae (aster or sunflower) family.
  • Native to China.
  • Common relatives include Cosmos, Dahlia, Calendula, Zinnia, strawflower, lettuce, artichoke and endive.
Personality:
  • Composite heads of ray and disk flowers in numerous forms and sizes at ends of branches.
  • Stems are leafy, usually branched or pinched to form one or more flowered stems.
  • Plant is a semi-woody perennial, classed as a dicotyledon, leaves not parallel veined.
  • Flowers are not fragrant in the typical manner but may be aromatic.
Availability: Year-round.
Flower Color: Shades of red, pink, orange, bronze, yellow and white.
Storage Specifics: Storage at 36-38 F (3 days or less) is fine, 32-34 F (if over 3 days). Stems with well-developed buds may be stored for up to 3 weeks.
Tidbits:
  • From Greek "dendron" (tree) and "anthemon" (flower). Many flower forms exist-standards have one flower per stem, spray mums are branched with several flowers per stem. Some form classes are daisy, spider (Fuji), quill, football, pompon, cushion, button and spoon. The "X" in the name means that it is a hybrid between at least two species. The specific epithet name grandiflorum means large flowers.
  • Mums have been cultivated in China for 2000 years, infusions of the leaves and flowers were used as medicine and fermented into wine. The dew collected from the flowers was said to promote longevity.
  • The mum was introduced to Japan in 400 AD and became the emblem of the imperial family. Name was recently changed back to Chrysanthemum X morifolium. It is a short day plant meaning that it will only flower when the days are short and the night long. That is why it naturally only flowers in the fall. At other times of the year the light/dark periods of the day have to be controlled by growers to promote flowering.
  • Mums reached Europe in the late 18th century, where the Chusan daisy became known as the pompon chrysanthemum because it resembled tassels on French sailors' hats. In Italy, mums are associated only with funerals and death. Some favorite cultivars and their respective flower colors include 'White Diamond' (white), 'Pelee' (orange and yellow) 'Shasta' (white), 'Regal Davis' (purple) and 'Miramar' (yellow).
  • Appearance of pink/red coloration on petals for cultivars not of this color indicates old flowers and/or flowers grown too cold. Material leaking out of carnation stems held in the same container as mums can often reduce the life of the mums. The Compositae or aster family is vast, with over 20,000 species, and is also one of the most developed families. It was named Compositae because the flowers are actually a "composite" of many individual flowers into one head. Hence, when children pull one "petal" off at a time, saying "she/he loves me, loves me not", they are actually removing a complete flower, not just a petal. Today, the flower heads, when dried, are used to flavor soups and stews and as coloring for butter. According to Creasy (1999), fresh petals are edible. Can be used in salads and teas or sprinkled over clear soups.
Recent Findings: Van Gorsel and Ravesloot (1994) showed that a one day interruption at 68F in a 47F cold chain from grower to consumer resulted in a three day loss in vaselife. Using 'Viking', Van Doorn and Cruz (2000) showed that in addition to microbe and/or air blockage in stems, a third blockage type apparently involves oxidative reactions that cannot be overcome by cutting under water and/or controlling microbe growth with germicides. Compared to carnations, gardenias, gladioli, orchids and roses, McClary and Layne (1977) showed that the surface of chrysanthemums harbored more bacteria species and higher populations. Van Ieperen et al. (2002) showed that placing chrysanthemums in deep solutions can help overcome air blockage because of the large diameter vessels in this species.